General Characteristics Of Amla – (Indian Gooseberry)

Amla is a popular fruit from the Indian Medicine System. It is a small to medium-sized tree. It stands between three and ten metres tall. The upright trunk bears numerous branches. The bark is knotted from the scars of fallen leaf stalks. Branches frequently break easily and are fragile. At the tips of the branches, the leaves are placed alternately. The leaves resemble feathers. That is, the huge petiole, which is around 30 centimeters long, has two sides covered in little leaves. The 20–30 pairs of crookedly oval, pointy at the tip, and generally circular at the base leaves are arranged in pairs. The leaves’ upper side is a pale green colour. It has a white and somewhat emerald underside.

Amla flowers sprout from the branches and trunks in groups. However, the majority of them spread upward from the tips of branches. They often grow on the underside of the leaves, it is a male flower. Female flowers on the same plant have flower stalks 1-2 mm long and petals shaped like kidneys. They come in red or green. The length of the petals is roughly 1.5 mm. Each male flower has four stamens. 3-4 ovaries are present in female flowers. Sometimes, the base of the ovary will have 1-3 stamens.

The fruit of the amla trees has a flat bottom and is rather rounded. The crown at the top of the fruit stem is depressed to the side. The fruit is surrounded by six to eight convex-concave lobes (convex squares). The fruit has a short fruit terminal of about 0.5 cm and is between 1-3 cm broad. Young fruit has a green colour. The fully grown fruit is a bright yellowish-green colour. And it will turn yellow as it ages. The pulp of the fruit is tart and luscious. Each fruit is lobed like a fruit lobe and contains one seed. The seeds have a delicate brown hue. It is an extremely tough seed. The amla fruit is rich in vitamin C, which is why the consumption of amla is quite popular. Due to its tart flavour, amla juice is a common way to use it.

The gooseberry tree can be divided into male and female trees. The male tree will be enormously tall and has few branches, broad leaves, and reddish-purple blooms. Few or no fruits are present. This is because there are more stamens than pistils in the flowers. But it does produce some fruit because some pistil flowers are still present. Female plants typically have many branches, small, bushy leaves, and shorter trunks. The branches are covered in fruit-bearing blooms that are yellow-green, abundantly bloom and bear flowers. This is due to female plants’ larger number of pistils compared to stamens, in which Male gooseberry roots and leaves are frequently chosen over female ones, according to the medical handbook and the folk medicine textbook. because it has higher therapeutic qualities

Amla Propagation

Amla can be propagated by seeds and grafting. Taking mature amla fruit will allow you to cultivate amla from seeds. and dropped off the tree. You should pick a mother tree that has many branches and constantly bears a lot of enormous fruit. Regarding the outcome of the planting, it ought to be a sizable, ripe fruit. Only the seeds should be left once the amla’s flesh has been peeled. After that, dry the seeds in the sun.

After the gooseberry seeds have dried, place them in a nursery bag and then soak them in hot water for about a minute to sprout into seedlings before planting, or you might bury the seeds in the ground where you want them to develop. Put two to three seeds in each hole. When the seedlings of amla appear, gradually remove the plants until just one ideal tree is left. However, it is currently determined that grafting is the most effective technique. A large one, roughly 10 years old, can still take root, blossom, and reproduce because it was from an early experiment.

Amla Chemical Composition

From several research studies, it has been found that in various parts of the amla, various important substances are often found as follows: Fruit has tannin, dextrose, levulose, sucrose, vitamin C. Root has beta-amyrin, phyllanthol, tannin saponin, gallic acid, phyllanthusols A, phyllanthusols B. In addition, approximately 77 types of essential oils are found in the amla fruit. 

Amla fruit also has the following nutritional values: Quantity of nutrients, minerals and vitamins found in amla fruit (100 grams of fresh fruit) – 

  • Water 91.9g
  • Protein 0.155g
  • Fat 0.52g
  • Fibre 0.8g
  • Ash 0.51g
  • Calcium 5.4mg
  • Phosphorus 17.9g
  • Iron 3.25mg
  • Carotene 0.019mg
  • Thiamine 0.025mg
  • Riboflavin 0.013mg
  • Niacin 0.292mg
  • Ascorbic acid 4.6mg

After water, ascorbic acid or vitamin C is max in the amla fruits.